Vesicovaginal Fistula

Vesicovaginal Fistula Vesicovaginal fistulas occur when the bladder connects directly to the vagina, leading to loss of bladder control and incontinence. A fistula is an abnormal passageway between two organs that do not normally connect. Fistulas can appear in most parts of the body and can be caused by trauma, surgery, or can be present at birth. A vesicovaginal fistula connects a woman's bladder directly to her vagina, which causes urine to drain into the vagina without passing through the urethra and results in loss of bladder control. Causes of Vesicovaginal Fistula Vesicovaginal fistulas can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing over time). Congenital causes are rare and include anomalies that occur during fetal development when the reproductive, intestinal, and urinary tracts merge to create a single pathway.

Vesicovaginal Fistula Symptoms

The most prominent symptom is incontinence or urine leakage, with severity depending on the size and location of the fistula. When a fistula is small, some urine still passes through the urethra and may cause only slight leakage. If the fistula is large and all of the urine flows from bladder to vagina, total incontinence can occur.